The reproductive system or commonly known as genital system is a structure of organs inside an organism which work collectively for the purpose of reproduction. Many non-living essence such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also significant accessories to the reproductive system.
In contrast to most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species frequently have considerable differences. These differences permit for a mixture of genetic material amid two individuals, which permits for the prospect of greater inherited fitness of the offspring.
Human reproduction takes position as internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. Throughout this process, the upright penis of the male is placed into the female’s vagina until the male expostulate semen, which includes sperm, into the female’s vagina. The sperm then moves in the course of the vagina and cervix into the uterus or another name known for fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum.
Leading to successful fertilization and implantation, gestation of the fetus then occurs within the female’s uterus for around nine months, and this whole cycle is considered as pregnancy in humans. Gestation ends with birth and that methodology of birth is called as labor. It comprises of the muscles of the uterus constricting, the cervix dilating, and the baby ephemeral out the vagina i.e. the female inherited organ. Human’s babies and children are almost dependent and entail lofty echelon of parental care for several years. One of the major and utmost important kinds of parental heed is the use of the mammary glands to nurse the baby which are present in the female breasts.
The female reproductive system has two purposes:
Firstly, to fabricate egg cell and secondly, to guard and feed the progeny till birth.
The male reproductive system has only one function, and that is to generate and place sperm. Humans have a high echelon of sexual differentiation. Over and above differences in almost each and every reproductive organ, abundant differences naturally happen in secondary sexual characteristics.
The creation of gametes takes place inside the gonads through a methodology known as gametogenesis.
Gametogenesis happens when certain types of germ cells experience meiosis to gash the standard diploid number of chromosome (n=46) converted into haploids cells which consists only 23 chromosomes.
In males, this procedure is known as spermatogenesis and it acquire place only after puberty in the somniferous tubules of the testes. The juvenile sperm or commonly known as spermatozoon are then sent to the epididymis where they expand an appendage and motility.
Each and every original diploid germs cells or primary spermatocytes produce four major functional gametes which is perpetually young. The production and endurance of sperms involve a temperature that is lower than the standard core body temperature. Given that the scrotum, where the testes are present, is located outside the body cavity, it endow with a temperature about 3°C below normal body temperature.
In females, gametogenesis is commonly called as oogenesis which takes place in the ovarian follicles of the ovaries. This procedure does not create mature ovum in anticipation of puberty.