Skin System


The integumentary system comprises of the biggest organ present in the body, the skin. These amazing organs guard the internal structure of the body from injury, thwart dehydration, consume fat and produces vitamins and hormones. It also helps to preserve homeostasis inside the body by support in the guideline of body temperature and water balance.

The integumentary system is the body’s first procession of protection against bacteria, viruses and many more microorganisms. It also helps to give fortification from detrimental ultraviolet radiation. The skin is a sensory organ that is why receptors for perceiving heat and cold, touch, pressure and pain are indulged in it. Hair, oil glands, nerves, blood vessels, muscles, sweat glands and many more vessels are the mechanism of the skin. Relating to integumentary system anatomy, the skin is tranquil of a layer of epithelial tissue or known as epidermis that is sustained by a layer of connective tissue  called dermis and a fundamental subcutaneous layer or hypodermis.

The outermost layer of the skin is tranquil of epithelial tissue and is commonly called as the epidermis. It consists of squamous cells or in other name called keratinocytes, which manufacture a tough protein known as keratin. Keratin is a chief and important constituent of skin, hair and nails. Keratinocytes on the facade of the epidermis are dead and are frequently discarded and substituted by cells from below. This layer also consists of specialized cells known as Langerhans cells that indicate the immune system of an infection.

The innermost layer of the epidermis comprises of keratinocytes known as basal cells. These cells persistently divide to generate new cells that are pressed upward to the layers beyond. Basal cells develop into new keratinocytes which reinstate the older ones that die and are discard. Inside the basal layer are melanin manufacturing cells most often called as melanocytes?

Melanin is a tincture that helps to guard the skin from detrimental ultraviolet solar radiation by benevolent it a brown tinge. Moreover found in the basal layer of the skin are touch receptor cells known as Merkel cells.


The layer below the epidermis is the dermis. This is the thickest layer of skin arranged in approximately 90 percent of its thickness. This layer consist specialized cells that help standardize temperature, fight infection, consume water and supply blood and nutrients to the skin. The specialized cells of the dermis also help in the recognition of sensations and give strength and litheness to the skin.


The innermost layer of the skin is known as hypodermis. It consists of fat and wobbly connective tissue and the layer of the skin protect the body and cushions and guards internal organs from wound. The hypodermis in addition to connecting skin to fundamental or essential tissues in the course of collagen, elastin and reticular fibers that lengthened from the dermis present in the body. A chief and most important constituent of the hypodermis is a type of concentrate connective tissue commonly described as adipose tissue that consumes fat i.e. it keeps a provision of additional energy. With the use of this component of skin nerves, blood vessels and hair particles gets broader.


  • ACNE